The consequence principle: Utilitarianism is not about actions but about the consequences of actions.
In the first scenario the patient succumbs after cancer variants emerge for which there are no more targeted therapies.
The range of different methods applied may partially explain the conflicting findings between studies but in-depth, qualitative exploration could provide richer insights into the reasons for disparities.
This rather simplified overview is nonetheless sufficient for our purposes. The article touches on ventilators, DNR orders, family conflicts and more. Virtue ethics Virtue ethics looks at virtue or moral character, rather than at ethical duties and rules, or the consequences of actions - indeed some philosophers of this school deny that there can be such things as universal ethical rules.
Statements should be expressions of opinion or belief not fact and be relevant to the topic of study. But it may not do enough to control access to very costly marginally beneficial care outside these three sets of circumstances.
Prescriptivism Prescriptivists think that ethical statements are instructions or recommendations. It is an infringement into divine territory.