When to cite information in an essay
Endnotes, on the other hand, are less intrusive and will not interrupt the flow of your paper. You make a specific claim that is not common knowledge like the Indian Ocean is the youngest of the world's major oceans.
List four things that are not required to be cited in your writing
Always speak with your professor about what writing style for citing sources should be used for the class because it is important to fully understand the citation style to be used in your paper, and to apply it consistently. Harris et al. He tends to serve himself badly As a general rule, it is okay to make minor grammatical and stylistic changes to make the quoted material fit in your paper, but it is not okay to significantly alter the structure of the material or its content. Then, at the bottom of the page you could reprint the symbol and insert your comment. Offer an authoritative expert opinion--like "germs cause pneumonia. According to Smith , Holland is famous for its tulips. Your Literature Cited section will contain the complete reference, and the reader can look it up there. Well, yes.
Year, e. If a study from forty years ago investigated the same research problem, it probably should be examined and considered in your list of references because the research may have been foundational or groundbreaking even if its findings are no longer relevant to current conditions or reflect current thinking [one way to determine if a study is foundational or groundbreaking is to examine how often it has been cited in recent studies using the "Cited by" feature of Google Scholar].
Because this makes it convenient for your reader, most citation styles require that you use either footnotes or endnotes in your paper. The only possible exception to this rule is information that is considered to be a commonly known fact [e. The only real difference is placement -- footnotes appear at the bottom of the relevant page, while endnotes all appear at the end of your document.
In order to do so, you will need to use some editing symbols. Referencing all relevant authors of prior studies gives your readers a clear idea of the breadth of analysis you conducted in preparing to study the research problem. Procedures used to cite sources vary among different fields of study.
Too many citations will give your teacher the impression that you are attempting to stretch your paper to a certain word count! Yale College Writing Center.
When to cite information in an essay
Should I avoid referencing other people's work? In general, however, if you are quoting more than 3 lines of material, you should do the following: change the font to one noticeably smaller in a document that is mostly 12 point font, you should use a 10 point font, for example double indent the quotation -- that means adjusting the left and right margins so that they are about one inch smaller than the main body of your paper if you have this option in your word-processor, "left-justify" the text. But often you can just tag this information onto the beginning or end of a sentence. Including references in academic writing not only defends you against allegations of plagiarism, but it is one of the most important ways to demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of previous investigations about the research problem. If a study from forty years ago investigated the same research problem, it probably should be examined and considered in your list of references because the research may have been foundational or groundbreaking even if its findings are no longer relevant to current conditions or reflect current thinking [one way to determine if a study is foundational or groundbreaking is to examine how often it has been cited in recent studies using the "Cited by" feature of Google Scholar]. Be sure to use quotation marks and cite your source. For example, In an essay presented at an Asian Studies conference held at Duke University, Sheldon Geron analyzes the relation of state, labor-unions, and small businesses in Japan between s and s. Before you work with a classmate on a problem set, paper, laboratory report or computer coding assignment, make sure you understand the specific course policies.
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